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4. Howard Gardener: seven intelligence model

Gardener has identified seven distinct learning styles. According to this theory "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals and an understanding of ourselves."
  • Visual/Spatial
    They are capable of visualize an object and create mental images. They acquire their knowledge by seeing and they have a strong sense of color. They can recognize relationships between objects, and representing graphically. They have difficulties with spoken instructions, and they have trouble to follow the lectures. Finally, they are usually inventors, architects, engineers, mechanics.
    How to learn:
    • To memorize facts, visualize the spelling of words.
    • To take notes, use flow charts, and diagrams.
    • To organize better the curriculum, use color code.
    • To review quickly and frequently, write out everything.
    • To make the learning procedure interesting and pleasant, use tools like video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia.
  • Verbal/Linguistic
    They are related to words and language. They acquire and process their knowledge by listening, reading and writing. They can easily understand the syntax and the meaning of the words and express themselves verbally. They have highly developed auditory skills. They like to read, write, discuss, explain. They are usually teachers, journalists, writers, lawyers, translators.
    How to learn:
    • To acquire knowledge, use multimedia, books, and lecture.
    • To assimilate a subject, discuss it or explain it to someone else.
    • To memorize, use tape recorders.
  • Logical/Mathematical
    They deal with numbers and relationships. They have the ability to recognize patterns to work with geometric shapes and to make connections between pieces of information. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They have skilled in reasoning, logic, and problem solving. They usually are scientists, engineers, computer programmers, accountants.
    How to learn:
    • To expand your mathematical knowledge, play logic games, the will improve your ability for classifying and strategy.
    • To deal with details, learn and form first concepts.
  • Verbal/Linguistic
    They are related to words and language. They acquire and process their knowledge by listening, reading and writing. They can easily understand the syntax and the meaning of the words and express themselves verbally. They have highly developed auditory skills. They like to read, write, discuss, explain. They are usually teachers, journalists, writers, lawyers, translators.
    How to learn:
    • To acquire knowledge, use multimedia, books, and lecture.
    • To assimilate a subject, discuss it or explain it to someone else.
    • To memorize, use tape recorders.
  • Bodily/Kinesthetic
    They are related to physical movement, the knowledge of the body and how it functions. They have the ability to use their body to express emotion, to play a game, and to interpret and invoke effective "body" language. They have mimetic abilities. They can control movements previously learned, and expand whole body's awareness. They are considered hyperactive and are usually athletes, dancers, actors, mimes, clowns.
    How to learn:
    • If you are learning a subject that does not include physical activity, for example computer science, you need to take sort but frequent breaks and move around.
    • Through physical activity, acting out, role playing using equipment and real objects.
  • Musical/Rhythmical
    They can recognize tonal patterns, rhythm and beat. They are sensitive to environmental sounds, the human voice and musical instruments. They can create melodies and sounds and understand the structure of music. They are usually singers, composers, disc jockeys.
    How to learn:
    • To create a pleasant environment for studying, use music in the background.
    • To assimilate a subject easier and acquire knowledge use CD-ROM, video, multimedia.
  • Interpersonal
    They can communicate verbally and nonverbally with others and have empathy for their feelings and beliefs. They are organizers, and know how to create and maintain a synergy. They can also see from other's perspectives. They are usually counselors, business people, politicians, community organizers.
    How to learn:
    • To acquire knowledge, involve with interaction, discussion and group activities, go to seminars.
    • To process the information use audio and video conferencing.
  • Intrapersonal
    They are skilled in inner focusing. They have deep awareness of inner feelings, dreams, and ideas. They are reflective and analytical. They can recognize self-strengths and weaknesses. They have wisdom, intuition, motivation, strong will, confidence and opinions. They are self-employed, researchers, theorists, philosophers.
    How to learn:
    • Through privacy, time, books, creative materials, independent study, introspection, research.

 



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